Maasai giraffe subspecies now declared endangered

15Jul 2019
The Guardian Reporter
The Guardian
Maasai giraffe subspecies now declared endangered

A SUBSPECIES of iconic animal, the giraffe that is mainly found in in Tanzania and Kenya has declined by nearly 50 per cent in the last 30 years, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), an international agency on the status of wild animals and plants.

IUCN announced over the weekend that Maasai giraffes, a subspecies spread throughout Kenya and Tanzania, are now endangered, with an estimated 35,000 Maasai giraffes remaining.

Their population has fallen by nearly 50 percent in the last three decades, while Africa’s overall giraffe population has decreased by up to 40 percent in the same timeframe.

Maasai giraffes are iconic, says Tanya Sanerib, international legal director for the Centre for Biological Diversity. Given that they’re one of the largest subspecies of giraffes, they’re the “quintessential” animal one is likely to think of when thinking of giraffes. For this subspecies to be declared endangered is a wake-up call, the director underlines.

“This was devastating news...It really sounds the alarm bell,” she says. “It really indicates that we need to be doing more for giraffes internationally and with whatever tools are available.”

This is the first time the Maasai subspecies (Giraffa camelopardalis ssp. tippelskirchi) was assessed on its own—previously, it was included as part of the IUCN Red List’s general giraffe listing (Giraffa camelopardalis), which considers giraffes “vulnerable,” a step further away from extinction than “endangered.” Of the nine subspecies of giraffes, Maasai and reticulated giraffes are endangered, and Nubian and Kordofan giraffes are critically endangered.

Hunting giraffes is illegal in both Kenya and Tanzania, but they are poached for their hide, meat, bones, and tails. An estimated two to ten percent of the population is hunted illegally every year in Serengeti National Park alone, according to the IUCN. Poaching has increased because of civil unrest and emerging markets for giraffe parts, including tail-hair jewelry and bone carvings. There’s even a belief among some that giraffe bone marrow and brains can cure HIV and AIDS, Tanzanian media have reported. Giraffes in central Africa are also being poached for their tails, the agency says.

Giraffe deaths have also increased because human populations have grown and expanded into what used to be wildlands, leading to increased incidents of crop damage and vehicle strikes. Hunting for bushmeat is also a threat.

Giraffes historically have been understudied compared to other threatened species. While thousands of scientific papers have been written on white rhinos, only about 400 such papers cover giraffes, according to giraffe researcher Axel Janke. There are fewer giraffes than elephants left in Africa.

“They’re the forgotten megafauna, so to speak,” says Julian Fennessy, co-director and co-founder of the nonprofit Giraffe Conservation Foundation. “They’ve sort of slipped away, sadly, while more attention has been given to elephant, rhino, lion and other species.” But more networking is now being conducted among scientists working to save giraffes.

We have so much to learn about giraffes, Sanerib says, it would be a shame to lose them. For example, they have complex circulatory systems that could have implications for understanding humans’ high blood pressure. Researchers have also found that they hum at night, and they have no idea why.

“We have this species that’s going extinct, and we have these phenomenal, really fascinating things about them that we don’t know the answers to,” she says enthusiastically.

Although for years there’s been a consensus that there’s one species of giraffe with nine subspecies, evidence of genetic differences has emerged in recent years, suggesting that there are actually four species of giraffe and that the Maasai subtype is its own species. Though Maasai giraffes aren’t widely recognized as a unique species, Fennessy says categorizing them as their own could reap more conservation benefits. For example, the United States’ Endangered Species Act grants protections to animals at the species level, which means giraffes are not considered endangered by U.S. standards, even though several subspecies clearly are.

But overall, Fennessy says this new assessment shines a light on the plight of these animals.

“By identifying that they are endangered, hopefully now collaboratively with governments and partners, we can turn the tide before it’s too late,” he added.